High Risk Traits:
- Broad climate suitability (in temperate regions)
- Possibly naturalized or persisting elsewhere (but no evidence in the Hawaiian Islands to date).
- Identified as one of several weeds in mulberry cultivation (but no negative impacts have been described).
- Other Iris species are invasive weeds.
- Toxic to animals (if eaten).
- Potentially toxic and may cause dermatitis in people.
- Reported to form dense stands within native range.
- Occurs on margins of aquatic habitats. Could potentially invade similar habitats in the Hawaiian Islands.
- Reproduces by seeds and clonally by rhizomes.
- Self-fertile (with reduced fruit and seed set).
- Seeds dispersed by water, and through intentional cultivation.
Low Risk Traits:
- Primarily occurs in cool, temperate regions (may only be a risk to cooler, higher elevations of tropical island ecosystems).
- Widely cultivated in a range of forms, with no specific evidence of negative impacts where introduced.
- Unarmed (no spines, thorns, or burrs)
- Grows best in partially shaded to high light environments (dense shade may inhibit spread).
- Herbicides may provide effective control.