High Risk Traits:
- Elevation range exceeds 1000 m, demonstrating environmental versatility.
- Grows, and could spread, in regions with tropical climates.
- The sawdust may be irritant.
- Shade tolerant when young
- Reproduces by prolific seed production (every 3-4 years)
- Seeds dispersed by wind, and intentionally by people.
- Tolerates pruning and can be propagated from stumps.
Low Risk Traits:
- No reports of invasiveness or naturalization, but no evidence of widespread introduction outside native range
- Unarmed (no spines, thorns, or burrs)
- Associated with acidic soils (spread may be limited by soil pH)
- Saplings require light gaps to grow and mature.
- Not reported to spread vegetatively.
- Relatively large, wind-dispersed seeds unlikely to be dispersed accidentally by other vectors.
- Seeds have a short viability and are unlikely to form a persistent seed bank.