High Risk Traits:
- Thrives and could potentially spread in regions with tropical climates.
- Contains calcium oxalate that may be toxic or harmful to animals and humans if ingested.
- Shade-tolerant (could potentially spread into intact forest understories).
- Tolerates many soil types.
- A functional geophyte, with tuberous rhizomes.
- May be able to reproduce by seeds and vegetatively from rhizomes and leaves.
- Fleshy-fruited. Possibly dispersed by birds or other frugivorous animals (although direct evidence is lacking).
- Dispersed intentionally through cultivation.
Low Risk Traits:
- Zamioculcas zamiifolia, commonly known as the ZZ plant, is a perennial herb native to tropical Eastern Africa, from Kenya to northeastern South Africa. The plant is popular for its attractive foliage and ability to thrive in low-light conditions, making it a favorite choice for indoor gardening. Although it produces fleshy berries that may be dispersed by birds or other animals and can reproduce vegetatively from its tuberous rhizomes and succulent leaves, it is not currently known to be naturalized or invasive anywhere in the world.
- No reports of naturalization or invasiveness where cultivated.
- Unarmed (no spines, thorns, or burrs)
- Not reported to be a host of any important pests or pathogens.
- Succulent. May be suitable for cultivation in fire prone areas.
- Although seeds may be produced, propagation is primarily through vegetative means, and seed production may be reduced in cultivation due to pollinator limitations.
- Seed longevity may be limited (unlikely to form a persistent seed bank).